EFEK NEUROPSIKIATRIK PADA PENYALAHGUNAAN PIL ZENITH (CARNOPHEN) OLEH KULI BANGUNAN DI BANJARMASIN
AbstractCarnophen is a muscle relaxant that works centrally, prescribed to relieve muscle spasms and pain. Recent scientific evidence confirms that carisoprodol abuse results in dangerous side effects, such as sudden psychomotor disorders and drug withdrawal resulting in hallucinations, seizures, and deaths. Abuse of this muscle relaxant in Banjarmasin was increased. The circulation is also increasingly widespread and can be bought easily and cheap prices by the public. Whereas the production permit and marketing permit for this drug have been stopped by BPOM since 2009. Weak economic communities with profane labor professions such as laborers and construction workers often consume zenith drugs for reasons not to get tired easily. This study was conducted to identify the neuropsychiatric effects that arise in zenith pill abuse (Carnophen) by construction workers in Banjarmasin. This study uses an observational design with a cross-sectional approach. This research was conducted using accidental sampling technique. Data collection was conducted in May - October 2018 using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 42 questionnaire instrument (DASS 42). Data analysis was carried out with qualitative analysis of Mile's and Huberman. The results showed that from 12 research subjects for 66% stress scale experienced mild stress, 16.6% moderate stress and the remaining 16.6% normal. For anxiety scale, 8.33% experienced mild anxiety, 75% experienced moderate anxiety and 16.6% experienced severe anxiety. For depression scale, 83.3% had moderate depression and 16.6% had severe depression. The results showed that zenith abuse can cause neuropsychiatric effects such as stress, anxiety, and depression.
Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan. Mudah Didapat dan Harganya Murah Penyalahgunaan Carnophen Resahkan Warga Banjarmasin. Tersedia dalam <http://pom.go.id/new/index.php/view/berita/12623/> (diakses 8 juni 2017)
Caplan J.P, Epstein L.A, Quinn D.K, Stevens J.R, Stern T.A, 2007. Neuropsychiatric Effect of Prescription Drug Abuse. Neuropsychology Review 17 : 363-380
Damanik, E.D. 2010. The measurement of Reliability, Validity, Items Analysis and Normative Data of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) . http://www.psy.unsw.edu.au/group/dass/Indonesia/Damanik.htm, diakses tanggal 2 April 2018
Garnier, L., Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O’Grady, K. E., & Wish, D.E. (2010). Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college studentsample. Journal for Clinical Psychiatry, 71(3), 262–269.
Gatch M.B, Nguyen J.D, Carbonaro T, Forster M.J, 2012. Carisoprodol Tolerance and Precipitated Withdrawal. Drug Alcohol Depend. June 1; 123 (1-3) : 29-34
Gonzales L.A, Gatch M.B, Taylor C.M, Bell-Horner C.L, Forster M.J, Dillon G.H, Carisoprodol-Mediated Modulation of GABAA Receptors : In Vitro and In Vivo Studies, The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 329 (2) : 827-837
Toth, P.E, Urtis J, 2004, Commonly used muscel relaxant therapies for acute low back pain: a review of carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, and metaxalone, Clinical Therapeutics, 26 (9) : 1355-1367
Witenko C, Li R.M, Motycka C, Duane K, Castillo J.H, Leonard P, Valaer C, 2014, Consideration for the Appropriate use of Skeletal Muscle Relaxant for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain, Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39 (6) : 427-435
Zacny J.P, Paice J.A, Coalson D.W, 2012, Subjective and Psychomotor Effects of Carisoprodol in Combination With Oxycodone in Healthy Volunteers, Drug Alcohol Depend, 120 (1-3):229-232
Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Ilmiah Ibnu Sina (JIIS): Ilmu Farmasi dan Kesehatan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.